Between populism and barbarism: an analysis of the figure of Evita Peron

  • Zuzanna Geremek University of Warsaw

Keywords

Argentina, Evita Perón, Ernesto Laclau, Peronism, Populism

Abstract

Eva Duarte de Peron, the second wife of Argentine President Juan Domingo Peron, left her mark not only on the 20th century history of Argentine politics, but also on the shaping of the Argentinean national identity. She is still alive in literature, art, drama and popculture. In the article we will analyze in what way the figure of Evita Peron was used by the peronism in Argentina. We will also try to show how important, also symbolically, role she has played, and still plays in shaping the Argentine identity. The article focuses on the ways, in which the figure of Evita operates within the Argentinian social imaginary not only on a historical level, but also as a cultural artifact, which strengthens her posthumous influence on the Argentinian society. The article draws on Ernesto Laclau’s theory of populism, Julia Kristeva’s abject theory, and the works of Martin Kohan, Paola Cortés Rocca and Elsa Drucaroff. Evita’s myth, with its various variants, will be confronted with the vision of femineity developed by feminist theories to answer several questions: what was her role in the formation of Peronist ideology? Can we really consider her a model of feminist-revolutionist? Did Evita’s fame converted her into a victim of a discourse she helped to create?

Author Biography

Zuzanna Geremek, University of Warsaw

Zuzanna Geremek holds a Master’s degree in Iberian Philology (Master’s thesis entitled: "Narratives of the body: queerness and the exclusion experience in Romance de la Negra Rubia and La Virgen Cabeza by Gabrieli Cabezón Cámara”) and Philosophy (Master’s thesis entitled “The Power of the Powerless? Around Eva Peron’s populism”). She studied within the framework of the College of Interdisciplinary Individual Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences (MISH) at the University of Warsaw. She is a PhD candidate at the Doctoral School of the Humanities in the discipline of literary studies. Her PhD project encompasses the narrative of contemporary Argentinian writers: Samanta Schweblin, Mariana Enriquez, Gabriela Cabezón Camara, Selva Almada and Ariana Harwicz. She author of the article “La genealogía paródica de las «negras rubias»: Romance de la Negra Rubia de Gabriela Cabezón Cámara” and co-author (with Katarzyna Kowalska) of the article “«Una familia normal es lo más siniestro»: la felicidad frustrada y el deseo femenino en Matate, amor de Ariana Harwicz”.

References

Agamben, G. (2008). Homo sacer. Suwerenna władza i nagie życie. Warszawa: Wydawnic-two Prószyński i S-ka.

Anderson, L. (2006). Autobiography and the feminist subject (ss. 119-135). W: Ellen Rooney (ed.) Feminist literary theory. Rhode Island: Cambridge University Press.

Arendt, H. (2010). Kondycja ludzka. Warszawa: Aletheia.

Benjamin, W. (2006). Konstelacje. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Cortés Rocca, P., Kohan, M. (1998). Imágenes de vida, relatos de muerte. Eva Perón: cuerpo y política. Buenos Aires: Beatriz Viterbo Editora.

Drucaroff, E. (2011). Los prisioneros de la torre. Política, relatos y jóvenes en la postdicta-dura. Buenos Aires: Emecé Editora.

Irigaray, L. (1985). This sex which is not one. New York: Cornell University Press.

Kantorowicz, E. (2007) Dwa ciała króla. Studium ze średniowiecznej teologii politycznej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of horror. An essay on abjection. New York: Columbia Univer-sity Press.

Laclau, E. (2006). Rozum populistyczny. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Dolnośląskiej Szkoły Wyższej.

Navarro, M. (1994) Evita. Buenos Aires: Editorial Planeta.

Navarro, M. (2002). Evita. W: J.C. Torre (coord.), Nueva historia argentina. Los años peronistas (1943-1955). Buenos Aires.

Paz, O. (1991). Labirynt samotności. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie.

Perón, E. (1951). La razón de mi vida. Buenos Aires: Ed. Peuser.

Rosano, S. (2007). Rostros y máscaras de Eva Perón: imaginario populista y representación (Argentina, 1951-2003). Buenos Aires: Beatriz Viterbo Editora.

Taylor, D. (2018). Nadawnie płci narodowemu „ja” (ss. 204-219). W: P. Majewski, M. Napiórkowski (red.) Antropologia Pamięci. Zagadnienia i wybór tekstów. Warsza-wa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.

Torre, J. C. (2002). Introducción a los años peronistas (ss. 11-79.). W: J. C. Torre (coord.) Los años peronistas (1943-1945). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.

Walsh, R. (2012) Esa mujer. Buenos Aires: Eloísa Cartonera.
Published
2021-12-19
How to Cite
GEREMEK, Zuzanna. Between populism and barbarism: an analysis of the figure of Evita Peron. Ameryka Łacińska. Kwartalnik Analityczno-Informacyjny, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 113-114, p. 39-58, dec. 2021. ISSN 2081-1152. Available at: <http://amerykalacinska.com/ojs/index.php/al/article/view/1096>. Date accessed: 18 jan. 2022.