The Sluggish Normalization of the U.S.-Cuba Relations

  • Adam Gwiazda Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy


The political and economic relations of the United States with Cuba have been during the recent more than 50 years “frozen”. Only in December 2014 the diplomatic relations between those two states were restored. It was one of the rare successes in the foreign policy of the president Barack Obama, who in March 2015 paid an official visit in Havana. That visit has brought about in practice the end of Cuba, isolation, but has not led to the full normalization of the political and economic relations and raising the trade embargo. That embargo was laid on Cuba the United States in 1962 and can be eliminated (removed) only by the Congress when the Cuban government will meet the requirements of the Helms- Burton law and pay the compensation for the nationalized property of the American companies and significantly change the existing political and economic system. After the death of Fidel Castro and his ideology “fidelism” the political and economic transformation of Cuba may be accelerated, which can lead to the full normalization of relations with the U.S. That normalization will, however, depend in the near future on the president Donald Trump foreign policy towards Cuba, who during his presidential campaign demanded “a better deal” both for the Cuban citizens as well as for the United States.

Author Biography

Adam Gwiazda, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy

Prof. dr hab., profesor w Instytucie Nauk Politycznych Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, specjalizuje się w problematyce międzynarodowych stosunków gospodarczych i politycznych, teorii polityki i analizie porównawczej systemów politycznych.


Coy, P. (2015, 12-18 stycznia). „Kuba jeszcze nie bardzo libre”, Bloomberg Businessweek – Polska.
„Cuba: a New Start October 12” (2014, 31 października). The New York Times.
„Globalne interesy: Kubańczycy negocjują z Amerykanami, a potem kupują od Chińczyków”, (2016). Bloomberg Businesweek – Polska”, nr 6.
Grillo, I. (2016). „Requiem for Venezuela”. Time, nr 37.
Hafetz, J. (red.) (2015). Obama’s Guantanamo, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hodge, N., Chin, J. (2016, 29 listopada). „A U.S.-Cuba Breach Presents an Opportunity for China”. The Wall Street Journal.
Hoffmann, B. (2016). „Bureaucratic Socialism in Reform Mode: the Changing Politics of Cuba’s Post-Fidel Castro Era”. Third World Quarterly, nr 9, ss. 1-15.
Hufbauer, G.C., Kotschwar, B. (2014). Economic Normalization with Cuba: A Roadmap for U.S. Policymakers. Washignton D.C.: Brookings Institute.
Irwin, D.A. (2014, 19-21 grudnia). „Trade Will Lead to Freedom”. The Wall Street Journal.
Kapcia, A. (2014). Leadership in the Cuban Revolution: The Unseen Story. New York: Zed Books.
Kuba w potrzebie. Castro prosi Putina o zwiększenie dostaw ropy (2016, 6 września). (dostęp: 7.07.2016).
LeoGrande, W.M., Kornbluh, P. (2014). Back Channel to Cuba: The Hidden History of Negotiations between Washington and Havana, Ithaca: The University of North Carolina Press.
Mesa-Lago, C., Perez-Lopez, J. (2013). Cuba Under Raul Castro: Assessing the Reforms.Boulder: Colorado University Press.
Milewski, P. (2015, 25 stycznia). „Kubański paragraf 22”. Newsweek. Mroziewicz, K. (2015). „Wolność do góry nogami”, Polityka, nr 3.
O’Grady, M.A. (2014, 23 grudnia). „Who Benefits if the Embargo Is Lifted?”. The Wall Street Journal.
ONZ za zdjęciem embarga na Kubę, USA wstrzymały się od głosu, (2016, 25 października). (dostęp: 18.08.2016).
Piętnastu więźniów zwolniono z Guantanamo (2016, 16 sierpnia). (dostęp: 18.08.2016).
Ritter, A.R.M, Henken, T.A. (2014). Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape. New York: Lynne Rienner.
How to Cite
GWIAZDA, Adam. The Sluggish Normalization of the U.S.-Cuba Relations. Ameryka Łacińska. Kwartalnik Analityczno-Informacyjny, [S.l.], n. 1 (95), p. 65-78, apr. 2017. ISSN 2081-1152. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 may 2020.
Countries - Regions